The Remains of Sainte-Anne-la-Royale, Paris, in 1900

A Cadastre Plan Now Online


Earlier this year, the Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris (BHVP) made some image collections pertaining to various historic buildings in Paris available online. The holdings may be searched via the library’s own online catalogue, or through the Gallica portal of the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

The files (recueils iconographiques) consist of prints and drawings relating to each building grouped together and pasted on large sheets of cardboard – a kind of analogue forerunner of Pinterest boards.

The Theatine church of Sainte-Anne-la-Royale, designed by Guarino Guarini, is documented in six images pasted on three boards. Most of these are already known in one form or another, but a cadastre plan dating to 1900 is particularly interesting. It provides additional information about the position of the unfinished church in the block between Quai Voltaire and the Rue de Lille. The church plan, signified with pink-red cross hatching, is superimposed on the plans of the buildings that were built on the site after Sainte-Anne was securlarized and partially demolished in the early nineteenth century.

These nineteenth-century buildings incorporated portions of the church structure, and remain on the site today, with few alterations in respect to the plan of 1900.

To see other plans of the site for comparison – Blondel’s 1752 engraved plan, and a satellite view of the block on Google Maps today – visit Guarini Sites Outside of Turin.

To learn more about Sainte-Anne-la-Royale, see the posts on this website tagged with “Paris“.

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Image (above): Recueil iconographique. Couvent des Théatins (Paris), detail with cadastre plan of 1900
Source: Ville de Paris / BHVP / public domain

San Nicolò da Tolentino: Study Day in Venice

14 June 2017
Fulvio Lenzo has organized the upcoming study day I Tolentini da convento a università at the IUAV in Venice. The event will examine the history of the church and convent of San Nicolò da Tolentino from its origins as a Theatine church designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi to its current incarnation as the IUAV School of Architecture.

I am looking forward to participating with my talk “‘The First of the Congregation’: From the Tolentini toward a Theatinerarchitektur.” Other speakers will offer detailed looks at key episodes in the history of the church, the convent, and the restorations by Daniele Calabi and Carlo Scarpa.

Download the complete program here or view it on the IUAV website.

San Nicolò da Tolentino, Venice, facade by Andrea Tirali, begun 1706
Photo: Susan Klaiber / Creative Commons License

Guercino and the Theatines

guercino_madonna_santi-modena

Guercino, Madonna with the Saints John the Evangelist and Gregory the Wonderworker, c. 1630 (San Vincenzo, Modena).
Image: Wikimedia Commons / public domain

Earlier this month, Italian media reported (here, here, or here) that a stolen painting by Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) of the Madonna with Saints John the Evangelist and Gregory the Wonderworker had been recovered in Casablanca. The altarpiece disappeared from San Vincenzo in Modena in August 2014, prompting heavy criticism of security measures at the former Theatine church. San Vincenzo happens to be the home church of Guarino Guarini, where he first joined the Theatine order as a novice in November 1639, and to which he returned for his ordination and first years as a priest beginning in 1647.

The altarpiece had been commissioned by the d’Este family in Modena – perhaps during the brief reign of Duke Alfonso III d’Este in the late 1620s. The painting was completed and installed in the first chapel on the left, dedicated to St. Gregory, in 1630.

This thus makes it the earliest of three works by the painter from Cento commissioned for Theatine churches in the region. An altarpiece of The Vocation of Saint Aloysius (Luigi) Gonzaga, dated c. 1650, was originally located in the right transept of the Theatines’ Santa Maria del Castello in Guastalla, and is now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum in New York.  It too was a prestigious ducal commission, in this case by by Duke Ferrante III Gonzaga. The unusual inclusion of a beatified Jesuit in a Theatine church can be explained by the duke’s desire to promote the cult of his distant relative, canonized only in 1726. Guarini would have seen the painting in December 1656, when he is recorded in Guastalla (Sandonnini 494-495).

guercinoguastallamet

Guercino, The Vocation of Saint Aloysius (Luigi) Gonzaga, ca. 1650
Image: Metropolitan Museum of Art / public domain

The third altarpiece by Guercino (1591-1666) at a Theatine church in his native region is found in Santa Maria della Pietà in Ferrara. The painting depicting the Purification of the Virgin was commissioned by the lawyer Claudio Bertazzoli for his family chapel in the church in 1654, with the final payment recorded the following year. The painting remains in the church today, the third altar on the left.

guercino_-_virgin_and_child_with_four_saints_-_wga10952

Guercino, Virgin and Child with Four Saints, ca. 1649.51
Image: Louvre / Wikimedia Commons / public domain

Of course, the Theatines were not the only people or institution in what is now present-day Emilia-Romagna to commission works by the accomplished local artist. Much of the responsibility for the commissions mentioned here resided with their wealthy or aristocratic patrons. For instance, in 1649 the d’Este ordered another painting from the artist for the church of San Pietro Martire in Modena (today in the Louvre). This altarpiece depicts the Madonna and Child with the four patron saints of Modena: San Geminiano, San Giovanni Battista, San Giorgio, and San Pietro Martire.

The central years of Guercino’s career also happened to coincide with the construction and furnishing of these churches begun exactly four centuries ago: the one in Guastalla was founded in 1616, while those in Modena and Ferrara were both founded in 1617. Although a general overview of seventeenth-century Theatine artistic policies remains to be written, these three examples show the order readily welcomed works of the highest quality when appropriate donors provided the necessary financial backing.

One big question remains: where should the painting recovered in Morocco go when it returns to Modena? According to the Gazzetta di Modena, the church of San Vincenzo still lacks adequate security measures. Some have suggested displaying it in a local museum such as the Galleria Estense, at least temporarily. In the meantime, the diocese is exploring ways to improve security at all of its churches.

By the way, the exhibition Guercino a Piacenza opens 4 March 2017 and runs until 4 June at the Palazzo Farnese in Piacenza. It also offers the opportunity to climb the dome of the cathedral to view the artist’s frescoes there up close.

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Further reading:

Daniela Sinigalliesi, “La Madonna in trono con San Giovanni Evangelista e San Gregorio Taumaturgo di Giovanni Francesco Barbieri detto il Guercino,” in E. Corradini, E. Garzillo, G. Polidori, eds., La chiesa di San Vincenzo a Modena. Ecclesia Divi Vincentii, Modena: Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena, 2001, pp. 136-141.

William M. Griswold, “Guercino“: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, v. 48, no. 4 (Spring, 1991): 38-40.

Barbara Ghelfi, “Il talento naturale e la ricerca dell’equilibrio. Il Guercino a Ferrara,” MuseoinVita.

Perceptions of Architecture in Early Modern Europe

Conference at Durham University, 5 November 2016

ledoux-eyeKimberley Skelton has organized a fascinating conference on architecture and the early modern viewer with ten papers to be presented on topics ranging across Europe from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. Maurice Howard will deliver the keynote address, speaking on “Buildings Observed in Early Modern England.” I am delighted to be participating with my talk entitled “Inside Out: Situating the Theatine Interior.” It examines a mid-eighteenth-century guidebook to the houses of the Theatine order written specifically for the members of the order.

The complete conference program may be consulted on the website of the Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies at Durham University, or as a PDF download with the registration form. The registration deadline is 26 October 2016.

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From the conference description:

Across discourses and media, early modern Europeans encountered advice about and models for interacting with the built environment around them. Architects scattered brief instructions for designing a viewer’s experience throughout their treatises, poets narrated imagined tours of house and estate, and artists who composed prints and paintings of buildings located viewers at particular vantage points. Simultaneously, philosophers and scientists debated human perception of the physical world at large – for example, explanation first by Aristotelian Scholastics and then mechanistic philosophers of how particle vibrations acted upon the human senses to create mental images of objects. Such architectural, philosophical, and scientific discussions had their echoes in self-reflective viewing of buildings by travellers who described in their journals the buildings that they visited.

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prospectus_pontis_novi_versus_pontis_-_btv1b6948990z
From my presentation: Georg Balthasar Probst, Vüe du Pont Neuf, vers le pont Royal, a Paris, 1740.
Source: Gallica / Bibliothèque nationale de France

Crumbling Capitals: Guarini in Modena

Screenshot of capital, Modena

View of the damaged corner capital at the Theatine casa of San Vincenzo, Modena (begun 1675)
Source: Screenshot from Gazzetta di Modena

Last week, the Gazzetta di Modena reported that portions of a capital and cornice crumbled and fell to the ground at the Tribunale di Modena (courthouse) on 9 June. Fortunately no one was injured. The building was originally built in the late 1670s as the Theatine house of San Vincenzo, according to designs by Guarino Guarini. The building is the sole example of Guarini’s architecture in his native city.

A later report in the same newspaper – while containing some inaccuracies about the date of the building and the date of the accident – quoted the administrative director of the building, Luigina Signoretti. She claimed the building had not received necessary maintenance since the Modena earthquake of 2012.

This current evidence of neglect at the historic San Vincenzo ensemble in Modena comes nearly two years after Guercino’s Madonna with the Saints John the Evangelist and Gregory the Wonderworker (1639) was stolen from the adjacent church. Although different authorities administer the courthouse and church, the incidents underscore the fatal combination of bureaucracy, indifference, and lack of funding for preserving Italian cultural heritage, particularly for monuments with a low profile outside major tourist centers.

Such neglect is by no means confined to isolated incidents in smaller towns such as Modena: last month, the Stampa reported crumbling facade elements at the popular sanctuary of the Consolata in Turin, where both Guarini and Filippo Juvarra worked.

Unfortunately, corporate partnerships such as those that recently funded restoration of the Trevi Fountain (Fendi) or the Spanish Steps (Bulgari, work underway) do not seem a viable strategy for preservation of the vast majority of Italian heritage sites. In the case of the Consolata and the Modena building, perhaps concern for public safety will finally convince the authorities to invest in necessary upkeep.

Related links

Modena Court Expands in Guarini Building (June 2013)
Guarini Sites Outside Turin

Pumpkins for Missionaries

Bartolomeo_Bimbi_-_The_Pumpkin_-_WGA02200Bartolomeo Bimbi, Pumpkins, 1711
Source: Wikimedia Commons / public domain

Travel Provisions for the Journey to India

The Theatine Bartolomeo Ferro (c. 1633- 1706) published his Istoria delle Missioni de’ Chierici Regolari, Teatini in two thick volumes in 1704 and 1705.  After many chapters recounting the adventures and hardships of the order during their mission work in Asia, he concluded the final volume with a suggested list of supplies to pack for the voyage to India. When the priests departed from Lisbon they should make sure to take things like utensils for celebrating mass, and also ample non-perishable foodstuffs such as wine and cheese.  In a special mention he recommends pumpkins because they “last for the whole voyage…and make the best soup there can be.”

“Portino molte Zucche di Lisbona, perche durano per tutto il viaggio, e per il viaggio dell’Indie è la miglior minestra, che possa darsi”

– Bartolomeo Ferro, Istoria delle Missioni de’ Chierici Regolari, Teatini, vol. 2 (Rome: Gio. Francesco Buagni, 1705): 672.

Happy Halloween, and remember to pack a few pumpkins wherever you’re going.

The Madonna of the Manger

Christmas, San Gaetano and the Nativity in Theatine Churches

Gaetano_MMAA key episode in the life of San Gaetano Tiene, founder of the Theatine order, relates a mystic vision the saint experienced at Christmas 1517. While praying in the chapel of the Presepe – a relic believed to be the manger from Bethlehem – in Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, the Virgin and Child appeared to Gaetano, accompanied by a choir of angels. Encouraged by Saints Jerome and Joseph, Gaetano approached the Madonna. In an intimate gesture of trust, Mary then offered the Child to Gaetano to hold. This image of the Theatine saint cradling the infant Jesus in his arms, often with the Virgin and other saints looking on, or receiving the baby from Mary, is a major motif in the iconography of San Gaetano.

This mystic vision of their founder seems to have given the Theatines a particular affinity for Christmas devotions. In Paris the order presented a popular annual Christmas novena, the Couches de la Vièrge, a nine-day devotion beginning on 16 December and concluding on Christmas Eve. Members of the French court regularly attended, and a description in the Journal des Guerres Civiles of Dubuisson-Aubenay details one of the final days of this novena in 1648:

“At three o’clock the queen was at the church of Sainte-Anne-la-Royale of the Theatine fathers, which all of Paris comes to see because of the representations there in the form of a theater with perspective, at the back of which the Holy Sacrament from the altar is displayed. On one side is the emperor Augustus with his court, and on the other are mathematicians who describe the world according to the gospel: edixit edictum a Caesare Augusto ut describeretur universus orbis (Luke, chapter II).”

Such a novena was also practiced at the Theatine church in Messina, Santissima Annunziata, as a 1644 source reports:

“…during the nine days before the Holy Birth of the Lord, the anticipation of the delivery of the most Holy Virgin… they celebrate here with much solemnity, with expensive stage sets, full of infinite lights, not without interest and attendance of the public, who come to rejoice and contemplate the sacred mystery of the incarnation of the Word, represented here with the sweetest music.”

Both descriptions mention elaborate ephemeral apparatuses employed for the novena, and both emphasize the popular appeal of the sacred spectacle. While it is not clear whether San Gaetano’s vision played a role in the Paris devotions or the early ones reported in Messina, a musical Dialogo relating Gaetano’s episode at the manger surives in a published version, performed at the church in Messina to mark his canonization in 1671. The fourteen-page libretto, entitled I celesti fauori concessi a S. Gaetano Tiene…, calls for five characters – the Madonna, Gaetano, Charity, Humility, and Providence – accompanied by a choir. At the latest after Gaetano’s canonization, then, his mystic Christmas experience seems to have played a more prominent role within Theatine spirituality.

479px-Matteo_rosselli,_natività_di_CristoElsewhere in Italy, an explicit link between the general cult of the Nativity and specific reference to San Gaetano’s Christmas vision can be traced in Florence. There, a chapel dedicated to the Nativity was installed in the right transept at the Theatine church of San Michele in 1610. The dedication originated in a vision of the Virgin experienced by the chapel patron, Elisabetta Bonsi, the night of Christmas Eve 1602. The altarpiece of the Nativity was painted by Matteo Rosselli. In 1671, upon Gaetano’s canonization, an image of his mystic encounter at the manger in Santa Maria Maggiore was added to the wall opposite the chapel entrance. For the Theatines, the saint’s vision thus becomes another station in the iconographic cycle of the Nativity itself. Gaetano also became a co-patron of the entire church to mark his canonization: today it is officially Santi Michele e Gaetano, often known simply as San Gaetano.

Nativity chapel San Lorenzo Wikimedia CROPPED These two elements of Theatine Christmas devotion – general celebration of the Nativity, and specific commemoration of San Gaetano’s mystic vision – are joined by a third component at San Lorenzo in Turin. Guarino Guarini’s Theatine church (constructed 1670-1680) prominently features a chapel dedicated to the Nativity flanking its high altar to the left, donated by the Marchesa Camilla Bevilacqua Villa. The Marchesa was first lady in waiting to the duchess regent, Maria Giovanna Battista, who as patron oversaw completion of the church and its furnishing by the most important members of her court. The chapel’s altarpiece of the Nativity is by the Savoyard painter Pierre Dufour, active as a portraitist and miniaturist at the court. The chapel patron, the Marchesa Villa, was purportedly related to San Gaetano on her mother’s side. No evidence has yet emerged indicating the Theatine Christmas novena was practiced in Turin, though the family ties between patron and saint make this likely. But the Madonna of the Manger also had another very important meaning here.

When it first was established in Turin in 1563, the church of San Lorenzo had originally been installed in a small Romanesque church dedicated to Santa Maria del Presepio – St. Mary of the Manger – on the northern city wall, behind the cathedral and the site of the later ducal palace. [Claims that the current chapel in the church narthex are located on the site of the original church of Santa Maria del Presepio should be disregarded (Klaiber, 1999).] That San Lorenzo subsumed the dedication to Santa Maria del Presepio seems confirmed by the opening lines of the inscription on the cornerstone laid when the church moved to its present site in 1634. The inscription specifically invokes the Virgin of the manger:

DEO     OPT.     MAX.
  Ac Sanctissimae Deiparae ad Praesepe
  Templum
  Beato Martyri Laurentio ex Serenissimi Emmanuelis Philiberti voto...

Silos San Lorenzo cornerstone

The heightened devotion to San Gaetano after his canonization in 1671 carried through the entire decade of the 1670s and into the 1680s, as witnessed by numerous projects to build new Theatine churches dedicated to him (Nice, Vicenza, Salzburg). This popularity also influenced the cults celebrated at San Lorenzo in Turin – under construction during the same period – most obviously in the inclusion of a chapel to San Gaetano (second on the right). The connection of the Nativity chapel to Gaetano is less immediately apparent, but perhaps more deeply resonant. The Marchesa Villa’s chapel, dedicated in August 1680, could perpetuate the titular cult of the lost Romanesque chapel of Santa Maria del Presepe and link this to the iconography of San Gaetano, fortuitously mingling the origins of San Lorenzo as a ducal church in Turin with Theatine spirituality and the patron’s familial piety.

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Images (top to bottom):

● Gaetano Gherardo Zompini, Saint Cajetan of Thiene Holding the Infant Jesus, pen and ink, eighteenth century.
Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Rogers Fund, 1966, 66.53.6)

● Placido Cara, I celesti fauori concessi a S. Gaetano Tiene… (Messina: Paolo Bisagni, 1671), p. 2.
Source: Google Books / Biblioteca nazionale centrale, Rome

● Matteo Rosselli, Nativity, Santi Michele e Gaetano, Florence, 1610.
Source: Wikimedia Commons / public domain

● Chapel of the Nativity, San Lorenzo, Turin, 1679-1680.
Source: Wikimedia Commons / Sailko (CC BY-SA 3.0)

● San Lorenzo cornerstone inscription from Giuseppe Silos, Historiarum clericorum regularium, vol. 2 (Rome: Heredum Corbelletti, 1655): 444.
Source: Google Books / Bavarian State Library

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Sources and Further Reading

Giuseppe Dardanello, “Cantieri di corte e imprese decorative a Torino,” in Giovanni Romano, ed., Figure del barocco in Piemonte (Turin: CRT, 1988): 163-204; 237-252.

Susan Klaiber, Guarino Guarini’s Theatine Architecture, Ph.D. dissertation (Columbia University, 1993): 97-8, 245, 256-7.

Susan Klaiber, “The First Ducal Chapel of San Lorenzo: Turin and the Escorial,” in M. Masoero, S. Mamino, C. Rosso, eds., Politica e cultura nell’età di Carlo Emanuele I. Torino, Parigi, Madrid (Florence: Olschki, 1999): 329-343.

San Gaetano in Art: private webpage with extensive collection of images documenting the iconography of San Gaetano.

A Lantern Aloft

Lieven Cruyl Records Guarini’s Sainte-Anne-la Royale

Cruyl Pont Royal detail GallicaLieven Cruyl, Construction du Pont Royal, 1686, detail
Source: gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliothèque nationale de France

The Flemish artist and architect Lieven Cruyl (c. 1640 – c. 1720) was one of the most attentive observers of seventeenth-century cities in France and Italy. His drawings and engravings of Rome, in particular, provide valuable, extremely accurate records of the Baroque city.

During a stay in Paris in the late 1680s, Cruyl documented the construction of the Pont Royal in a series of drawings and an engraving. Fortunately, these images also captured the state of Guarino Guarini’s unfinished Theatine church Sainte-Anne-la-Royale nearby, twenty years after construction there had halted due to a lack of funds. The church, with its facade facing the Louvre, was to have stretched from the Seine all the way through the block to a rear street. Only the transept was completed, though, and turned into the nave of a much smaller church. This remained buried in the block, surrounded by houses on all sides, as published by Jacques-François Blondel in his Architecture Françoise (1752).

British Museum Cruyl ParisLieven Cruyl, La ville de Paris, vue du côté du Pont Royal des Tuileries…, c. 1687
Source: © The Trustees of the British Museum

In 2001 I discussed Cruyl’s engraving of the completed Pont Royal (above, click to enlarge), where Sainte-Anne may be seen at no. 38 on the right side of print. This engraved image shows the conical temporary cover placed over the incomplete church crossing with some sort of lantern adjacent, as well as some articulation of the lateral elevation, and it gives a sense of the building’s volume, but few other details are visible.

Cruyl Pont Royal GallicaLieven Cruyl, Construction du Pont Royal, 1686, detail
Source: gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliothèque nationale de France

Now, close inspection of one of Cruyl’s studies of the bridge construction (above here, and top detail) reveals an even better view of Guarini’s Paris church. The conical crossing cover is again visible, but also a clear image of one of the original transept vault lanterns on an elongated hexagonal plan, much as Guarini presented the feature in the engravings for his treatise (below). A dentil cornice can also be made out, as Guarini published for the second order of the facade and in a detail on the elevation plate, although it is not indicated for the transepts on same plate.

The conical temporary dome covering and any visible lanterns were all covered over in 1714-20, when lottery funds were donated to put a uniform, high-pitched roof on the structure, hiding Guarini’s lantern from the Parisian skyline. The church covered with the high roof may be seen in numerous views throughout the eighteenth-century. In the middle of the century, portals with corridors leading to the church inside the block were added to the front and rear streets, providing more dignified access to the Theatines’ remaining Parisian foothold.

The church was largely demolished during the 1820s, although a few remnants have been incorporated into structures still on the site today.

Ste-Anne planSte-Anne elevationSte-Anne section
Left to right: Guarino Guarini, “Chiesa di S. Anna la Reale di Parigi…,” “Prospetto esteriore di S. Anna R.le di Parigi,” and “Prospetto interno di S. Anna Reale di Parigi,” Dissegni d’architettura civile… (Turin: Gianelli,1686), plates 9-11, engraved by Giovanni Fayneau and Antonio De Piene.
Source: Getty Research Library / Internet Archive

Further Reading

David R. Coffin, “Padre Guarino Guarini in Paris,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 15: 2 (May, 1956): 3-11.

Augusta Lange, “Disegni e documenti di Guarino Guarini,” in V. Viale, editor, Guarino Guarini e l’internazionalità del Barocco, vol. 1 (Turin: Accademia delle scienze, 1970): here, 103-116.

Giuseppe Dardanello, “La scena urbana,” in G. Romano, editor, Torino 1675-1699. Strategie e conflitti del Barocco (Turin: Fondazione CRT, 1993): here, 51-54.

Susan Klaiber, “Guarini e Parigi: interscambi culturali e critici,” in G. Dardanello, editor, Sperimentare l’architettura. Guarini, Juvarra, Alfieri, Borra e Vittone (Turin: Fondazione CRT, 2001): 15-36.

Edoardo Piccoli, “Una pianta della Sainte-Anne-la-Royale di Guarini nel fondo de Cotte,” in G. Dardanello, S. Klaiber, and H. A. Millon, editors, Guarino Guarini (Turin: Umberto Allemandi & C., 2006): 284-289.

Geometrical Objects

Klaiber_Figure_4

From my chapter: Andrea Pozzo, Rules and Examples of Perspective Proper for Painters and Architects, etc., (London: J. Senes, R. Gosling, W. Innys, J. Osborn and T. Longman, 1707, reprint New York: Dover, 1989), plate 17, perspective study of Doric base.
Source: Susan Klaiber / public domain

Proceedings of 2007 Oxford Conference

What began as a small session at the Society of Architectural Historians 2005 Annual Meeting in Vancouver, and then developed into a very collegial two-day conference in Oxford in 2007, has now been published by Springer in both hardcover and e-book formats. My contribution, the chapter “Architecture and Mathematics in Early Modern Religious Orders,” may be previewed at Springer Link.

From the volume’s cover blurb:
 
Geo Objects coverThis volume explores the mathematical character of architectural practice in diverse pre- and early modern contexts. It takes an explicitly interdisciplinary approach, which unites scholarship in early modern architecture with recent work in the history of science, in particular, on the role of practice in the scientific revolution. As a contribution to architectural history, the volume contextualizes design and construction in terms of contemporary mathematical knowledge, attendant forms of mathematical practice, and relevant social distinctions between the mathematical professions. As a contribution to the history of science, the volume presents a series of micro-historical studies that highlight issues of process, materiality, and knowledge production in specific, situated, practical contexts. Our approach sees the designer’s studio, the stone-yard, the drawing floor, and construction site not merely as places where the architectural object takes shape, but where mathematical knowledge itself is deployed, exchanged, and amplified among various participants in the building process.​

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Anthony Gerbino, editor, Geometrical Objects: Architecture and the Mathematical Sciences 1400-1800, Archimedes 38, (Cham: Springer, 2014).

C O N T E N T S

• Introduction Anthony Gerbino

Foundations

• Proportion and Continuous Variation in Vitruvius’s De Architectura Bernard Cache

Mathematics and Material Culture in Italian Renaissance Architecture

• The Palazzo del Podestà in Bologna: Precision and Tolerance in a Building all’Antica Francesco Benelli

• Practical Mathematics in the Drawings of Baldassarre Peruzzi and Antonio da Sangallo the Younger Ann C. Huppert

• Geometric Survey and Urban Design: A Project for the Rome of Paul IV (1555–1559) David Friedman

The Baroque Institutional Context

• Architecture and Mathematics in Early Modern Religious Orders Susan Klaiber

• The Master of Painted Architecture: Andrea Pozzo, S. J. and His Treatise on Perspective Kirsti Andersen

Narratives for the Birth of Structural Mechanics

• Geometry, Mechanics, and Analysis in Architecture Jacques Heyman

• Epistemological Obstacles to the Analysis of Structures: Giovanni Bottari’s Aversion to a Mathematical Assessment of Saint-Peter’s Dome (1743) Pascal Dubourg Glatigny

• A Scientific Concept of Beauty in Architecture: Vitruvius Meets Descartes, Galileo, and Newton Filippo Camerota

Architecture and Mathematical Practice in the Enlightenment

• Breathing Room: Calculating an Architecture of Air Jeanne Kisacky

• James “Athenian” Stuart and the Geometry of Setting Out David Yeomans, Jason M. Kelly, Frank Salmon

* * *

The Archimedes Series

Archimedes has three fundamental goals: to further the integration of the histories of science and technology with one another; to investigate the technical, social and practical histories of specific developments in science and technology; and finally, where possible and desirable, to bring the histories of science and technology into closer contact with the philosophy of science. …Its subjects include any of the sciences, ranging from biology through physics, all aspects of technology, broadly construed, as well as historically-engaged philosophy of science or technology. Taken as a whole, Archimedes will be of interest to historians, philosophers, and scientists, as well as to those in business and industry who seek to understand how science and industry have come to be so strongly linked.
Source: Springer

Celebrating Churches to San Gaetano

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On the feast day of the Theatine founder San Gaetano Thiene (1480-1547), this image gallery celebrates a few of the order’s churches associated with the saint. Known in English as Saint Cajetan, the younger son of a noble Vicentine family was canonized in 1671. Many of these churches were originally dedicated to other saints, with the dedication to Gaetano added – formally or informally – after his canonization. Others, such as the two unexecuted designs by Guarini, followed immediately in the wake of canonization.

Most of these churches are no longer served by the Theatines, and some (notably Nice) are today known under different dedications. For more (if not all) churches dedicated to the saint, see this Wikimedia Commons category page. All images are in the public domain.